DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jsolum.15.1.26-39.2018

Ermadani Ermadani *  (Graduate Program of Agricultural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia)
Hermansah Hermansah (Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia)
Yulnafatmawita Yulnafatmawita (Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia)
Auzar Syarif (Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia)

(*) Corresponding Author


Karbon (C) organik tanah yang merupakan bagian utama dari bahan organik tanah mengalami penurunan sebagai akibat perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dari kondisi alami menjadi lahan-lahan pertanian. Penurunan C organik tanah menjadi semakin besar karena masukan bahan organik yang rendah dan bila penurunan ini. berlangsung terus menerus  maka pada akhirnya menyebabkan degradasi tanah. Artikel ini membahas peranan, dekomposisi dan struktur dari bahan organik tanah dalam hubungannya dengan dinamika fraksi C organik tanah pada pengelolaan lahan yang berbeda di daerah tropis basah. Perubahan penggunaan dan pengelolaan lahan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan C organik total dan fraksi-fraksi C organik labil dan stabil tanah. Beberapa penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa fraksi C organik labil seperti C organik partikulat lebih responsif terhadap perubahan-perubahan dari pengelolaan tanah dan merupakan suatu indikator yang sensitif dari kualitas tanah. Disamping itu fraksi C organik stabil seperti asam humat yang mengalami perubahan karena praktek-praktek  pengelolaan tanah dapat digunakan untuk menilai kapasitas potensial tanah sebagai penyimpan karbon. Perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dan pengelolaan tanah mempunyai pengaruh negatif dan positif terhadap C organik total, fraksi C organik labil (C organik partikulat) dan fraksi C organik stabil (asam humat). Praktek-praktek pengelolaan yang dapat mempertahankan dan memperbaiki fraksi-fraksi C organik tanah  meliputi sistem agroforestri,  aplikasi pupuk organik, mulsa dan pengembalian sisa tanaman ke dalam tanah. Fraksi C organik partikulat dan asam humat menunjukkan perubahan-perubahan yang lebih besar dibandingkan C organik total akibat perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dan praktek-praktek pengelolaan tanah di daerah tropis basah.

Key words : Fraksi C organik, penggunaan lahan, tropis basah

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