Ermadani Ermadani, Hermansah Hermansah, Yulnafatmawita Yulnafatmawita, Auzar Syarif


Karbon (C) organik tanah yang merupakan bagian utama dari bahan organik tanah mengalami penurunan sebagai akibat perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dari kondisi alami menjadi lahan-lahan pertanian. Penurunan C organik tanah menjadi semakin besar karena masukan bahan organik yang rendah dan bila penurunan ini. berlangsung terus menerus  maka pada akhirnya menyebabkan degradasi tanah. Artikel ini membahas peranan, dekomposisi dan struktur dari bahan organik tanah dalam hubungannya dengan dinamika fraksi C organik tanah pada pengelolaan lahan yang berbeda di daerah tropis basah. Perubahan penggunaan dan pengelolaan lahan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan C organik total dan fraksi-fraksi C organik labil dan stabil tanah. Beberapa penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa fraksi C organik labil seperti C organik partikulat lebih responsif terhadap perubahan-perubahan dari pengelolaan tanah dan merupakan suatu indikator yang sensitif dari kualitas tanah. Disamping itu fraksi C organik stabil seperti asam humat yang mengalami perubahan karena praktek-praktek  pengelolaan tanah dapat digunakan untuk menilai kapasitas potensial tanah sebagai penyimpan karbon. Perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dan pengelolaan tanah mempunyai pengaruh negatif dan positif terhadap C organik total, fraksi C organik labil (C organik partikulat) dan fraksi C organik stabil (asam humat). Praktek-praktek pengelolaan yang dapat mempertahankan dan memperbaiki fraksi-fraksi C organik tanah  meliputi sistem agroforestri,  aplikasi pupuk organik, mulsa dan pengembalian sisa tanaman ke dalam tanah. Fraksi C organik partikulat dan asam humat menunjukkan perubahan-perubahan yang lebih besar dibandingkan C organik total akibat perubahan-perubahan penggunaan lahan dan praktek-praktek pengelolaan tanah di daerah tropis basah.

Key words : Fraksi C organik, penggunaan lahan, tropis basah

Full Text:



Ahn, M.Y., A. R. Zimmerman, N. B. Comerford, J. O. Sickman, and S. Grunwald. 2009. Carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon pools in the sandy soils of a North Florida Watershed. Ecosystems 12: 672–685.

Ai Dariah, N. L. Nurida and Jubaedah. 2012. The usage of soil conditioner for ameliorating degraded soil dominated by sand and clay fractions. Proceeding of National Seminar on Fertilization Technology and Improvement of Degraded Lands. Pages 669-676. Editors: Wigena I.G.P., N.L. Nurida, D. Setyorini, Husnain, E. Husen dan E. Suryani. Bogor, 29-30 June 2012. Research and Agriculture Development Institute. Agriculture Ministry, Indonesia. 2012. (in Indonesian).

Amusan O.A. and M.T. Adetunji. 2013. Organic matter build-up in a tropical Alfisol under a legume-based integrated nutrient management system. J. Soil Sci. 2(1):29-33.

Anda, M., J. Shamshuddin, C. I. Fauziah and S. R. S. Omar. 2010. Increasing the organic matter content of an Oxisol using rice husk compost: changes in decomposition and its chemistry. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 74:1167–1180.

Baldock, J.A., J.M. Oades, A.G. Waters, X. Peng, A.M. Vassallo, and M.A. Wilson. 1992. Aspects of the chemical structure of soil organic materials as revealed by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Biogeochemistry 16:1–42.

Bationo, A., J. Kihara, B. Vanlauwe, B. Waswa and J. Kimetu. 2007. Soil organic carbon dynamics, functions and management in West African agro-ecosystems. Agricultural Systems, 94(1):13-25.

Bonifacio, E., G. Falsone and M. Petrillo. 2011. Humus forms, organic matter stocks and carbon fractions in forest soils of northwestern Italy. Biol Fertil Soils 47:555–566.

Bowden, C.L., G.K. Evanylo, X. Zhang, E.H. Ervin and J.R. Seiler. 2010. Soil carbon and physiological responses of corn and soybean to organic amendments. Compost Science & Utility 18:162-173.

Blair, G.J., A. Conteh and R.D.B. Lefroy. 1995. Fate of organic matter and nutrients in upland agricultural systems. In: Lefroy, R.D.B., G.J Blair, E.T. Craswell, (Eds.), Soil Organic Matter Management for Sustainable Agriculture, ACIAR Proceedings No. 56, Ubon, Thailand, August 24-26, 1994. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia, pp. 41-49.

Bruun S., I.K. Thomsen, B.T. Christensen and L.S. Jensen. 2007. In search of stable soil organic carbon fractions: a comparison of methods applied to soils labeled with 14C for 40 days or 40 years. Eur J Soil Sci 59:247–256.

Cahyani, V.R., A. Watanabe, K. Matsuya, S.Asakawa and M. Kimura. 2002. Succession of microbial estimated by phospholipid fatty acid analysis and changes in organic constituents during the composting process of rice straw. Soil Sci. Plant. Nutr. 48:735-743.

Cambardella, C.A. and Elliott, E.T. 1992. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 56:777-783.

Chen, C.R., Z.H. Xu, and N.J. Mathers. 2004. Soil carbon pools in adjacent natural and plantation forests of subtropical Australia. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 282–291.

Chien, S. W. C., M. C. Wang, C. C. Huang, and K. Seshaiah. 2007. Characterization of humic substances derived from swine manure-based compost and correlation of their characteristics with reactivities with heavy metals. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55, 4820-4827.

Craswell, E.T. and R.D.B. Lefroy. 2001. The role and function of organic matter in tropical soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 61:7-18.

Christensen, B.T. 2001. Physical fractionation of soil and structural and functional complexity in organic matter turnover. Eur J Soil Sci. 52:345–353.

Dechert, G., E. Veldkamp1 and I. Anas. 2004. Is soil degradation unrelated to deforestation? Examining soil parameters of land use systems in upland Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Plant and Soil 265: 197–209.

de Figueiredo, C.C. , D. V. S. Resck and M. A. C. Carneiro. 2010. Labile and stable fractions of soil organic matter under management systems and native Cerrado. R. Bras. Ci. Solo, 34:907-916.

Funakawa, S., M. Makhrawie, and H. B. Pulunggono. 2009. Soil fertility status under shifting cultivation in East Kalimantan with special reference to mineralization patterns of labile organic matter. Plant Soil, 319: 57-66.

Gale , W.J., C.A. Cambardella and T.B. Bailey. 2000. Rootderived carbon and the formation and stabilization of aggregates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64: 201-207.

Ghabbour, E.A., G. Davies, J. L. Daggett, Jr., C. A. Worgul, G. A. Wyant and M. Sayedbagheri. 2012. Content of commercial lignites and agricultural top soils in the national soil project. Annals of Environmental Science 6, 1-12.

Gollany, H.T. , J. M. Novak, Y. Liang, S. L. Albrecht, R. W. Rickman, R. F. Follett, W. W. Wilhelm and P. G. Hunt. 2010. Simulating Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics with Residue Removal Using the CQESTR Model. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 74:372–383.

Grandy, A.S., G.P. Robertson and K.D. Thelen. 2006. Do productivity and environtmental trade-offs justify periodically cultivating no-till cropping systems?. Agron. J. 98:1377-1383.

Greenland D., D. Rimmer and D. Payne. 1975. Determination of the structural stability class of English and Welsh soils, using a water coherence test. European Journal of Soil Science, 26, 294–303.

Gregorich, E.G., M.H., Beare, U.F., McKim and J.O. Skjemstad, 2006. Chemical and biological characteristics of physically uncomplexed organic matter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:975–985.

Gu, C., Y. Liu, I. Mohamed, R. Zhang, X. Wang, X. Nie, M. Jiang, M. Brooks, F. Chen, Z. Li. 2016. Dynamic Changes of Soil Surface Organic Carbon under Different Mulching Practices in Citrus Orchards on Sloping Land. PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168384.

Guimaraes, D.F., M. I. S. Gonzaga, T. O. da Silva, T. L. da Silva, N. S. Dias and M. I. S. Matias. 2013. Soil organic matter pools and carbon fractions in soil under different land uses. Soil & Tillage Research 126 : 177–182.

Handayani, I.P., P. Prawito and M. Ihsan. 2012. Soil changes associated with Imperata cylindrica grassland conversion in Indonesia. Int. J. Soil Sci. 7(2):61-70.

Haynes, R. J. 2005. Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of agricultural soils: an overview. Adv. Agr., 8, 221-268.

Hermansah, N. Sendi, Yulnafatmawita, T. Masunaga and T. Wakatsuki. 2010. Characteristics and stocks of soil nutrient under various land use types in a super wet tropical rain forest Padang, West Sumatra. J Trop Soils, 15 (1): 55-62.

Islam, K.R., and R.R. Weil. 2000. Soil quality indicator properties in mid-Atlantic soils as influenced by conservation management. J. Soil and Water Conserv. 55:69-78.

Jagadamma, S and R. Lal. 2010. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management. Biol Fertil Soils (2010) 46:543–554.

Jimenez, J.J., and R. Lal. 2006. Mechanisms of C sequestration in Soils of Latin america. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 25:337-365.

Krull, E.S., J.A. Baldock and J.O. Skjemstad. 2003. Importance of mechanisms and processes of the stabilization of soil organic matter for modeling carbon turnover. Funct Plant Biol 30:207–222.

Kumar, K. and K.M. Goh. 2000. Crop residues and management practices: effect on soil quality, soil nitrogen dynamics, crop yield and nitrogen recovery. Adv. Agron. 68.

Kursten E. and P. Burschel. 1993. CO2 mitigation by agroforestry. Water, Air Soil Pollut 70:533–544.

Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304:1623–1629.

Lal, R. 2016. Soil health and carbon management. Food and Energy Security, 5(4):212-222.

Ludwig J, D Tongway, D Freudenberger, J Noble and K Hodgkinson. 1997. Landscape Ecology. Function and Management: Principles from Australia’s Rangelands. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Mbagwu, J.S.C. and Piccolo, A. 2004. Reduction in organic matter fractions and structural stability following cultivation of tropical forest in Ethiopia and Nigeria. Int. Agrophysics 18:23-29.

Mirsky, S.B., L. E. Lanyon, and B. A. Needelman. 2008. Evaluating soil management using particulate and chemically labile soil organic matter fractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72:180-185.

Muscolo, A., M. Sidari, E. Attinà, O. Francioso, V. Tugnoli and S. Nardi. 2006. Biological activity of humic substances is related to their chemical structure. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:75-85.

Nunan N., M.A. Morgan, J. Scott. and M. Herlihy. 2000. Temporal changes in nitrogen mineralization, microbial biomass, respiration and protease activity in a clay loam soil under ambient temperature Biology and Environment: Proceed the Royal Irish Acade 100B: 107-114.

Palm, C.A., C.N., Gachengo, R.J., Delve, G., Cadisch, and K.E., Giller. 2001. Organic inputs for soil fertility management in tropical agroecosystems: application of an organic resource database. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 83, 27–42.

Pandey, C.B. , G. B. Singh, S. K. Singh and R. K. Singh. 2010. Soil nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon dynamics in native forests and derived agricultural land uses in a humid tropical climate of India. Plant Soil 333:453–467.

Patrıcia A. B., P.A.B. Barreto,., E.F. Gama-Rodrigues,., A. C. Gama-Rodrigues, A.G. Fontes,., J.C. Polidoro, M.K.S. Moco, R.C.R. Machado and V.C. Baligar. 2011. Distribution of oxidizable organic C fractions in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Southern Bahia, Brazil. Agroforest Syst. 81:213–220.

Piccolo, M.C., C. Neill and C.C. Cerri. 1994. Net nitrogen mineralization and net nitrification along a tropical forest- topasture chronosequence. Plant Soil 162:61–70.

Quincke, J.A. C.S. Wortmann, M. Marno, T. Franti and R.A. Drijber. 2007. Occasional tillage of no till systems carbon dioxide flux and changes in total and labile soil organic carbon. Agron. J. 99:1158-1168.

Rivero, C. T. Chirenje, L.Q. Ma and G. Martinez. 2004. Influence of compost on soil organic matter quality under tropical conditions. Geoderma 123: 355–361.

Sang, P.M., D. Lamb, M. Bonner and S. Schmidt. 2013. Carbon sequestration and soil fertility of tropical tree plantations and secondary forest established on degraded land. Plant Soil 362:187–200.

Setyawan, D., G. Robert and D. Tongway. 2011. Nutrient cycling index in relation to organic matter and soil respiration of rehabilitated mine sites in Kelian, East Kalimantan. J Trop Soils 16 (3)1: 219-223.

Six, J., E.T. Elliott, K. Paustian, and J.W. Doran. 1998. Aggregation and soil organic matter accumulation in cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 62:1367–1377.

Six, J., R.T. Conant, E.A. Paul, and K. Panstian. 2002. Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil 241, 151– 176.

Smiley G.L. and J. Kroschel. 2008. Temporal change in carbon stocks of cocoa-gliricidia agroforests in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agrofor. Syst 73:219–231.

Spaccini, R., A. Piccolo, G. Haberhauer, and M. Gerzabek. 2006. Transformation of organic matter from maize residues into labile and humic fractions of three European soils as revealed by 13C distribution and CPMAS-NMR spectra. European Journal of Soil Science 51, 583–594.

Sreekanth N.P., S. PrabhaV, B. Padmakumar and A.P Thomas. 2013. Effect of land use conversion on soil carbon storage in a tropical grassland. Annals of Environmental Science 7, 101-112.

Stewart, C.E., C. N. Jason, L.A. Kathryn and P. M. Vitousek. 2011. Vegetation effects on soil organic matter chemistry of aggregate fractions in a Hawaiian forest. Ecosystems (2011) 14: 382–397.

Strosser, E. 2010. Methods for determination of labile soil organic matter: An overview. J Agrobiol 27(2): 49–60.

Tisdall, J.M., and Oades, J.M. 1982. Organic matter and waterstable aggregates in soils. J. Soil Sci., 33: 141-163.

Tobiasova, E. and J. Miscolczi. 2012. Humus substances and soil structure. Soil Science Annual 63 (3) : 31.36.

Valladares, G.S., M. G. Pereira, L. H. C. dos Anjos, V. M. Benites, A. G. Ebeling and R. O. Mouta. 2007. Humic substance fractions and attributes of histosols and related high-organic matter soils from Brazil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38: 763–777.

Verma, B.C., S.P. Datta, R.K. Rattan and A.K. Singh. 2013. Labile and stabilized fractions of soil organic carbon in some intensively cultivated alluvial soils. Journal of Envt. Biology 34:1069-1075.

Wang, W.J., J.A. Baldock, R.C. Dalal and P.W. Moody. 2004. Decomposition of plant materials in relation to nitrogen availability and biochemstry determined by NMR and wet chemical analysis. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36:2045-2058.

Wang, Q and S. Wang. 2011. Response of labile soil organic matter to changes in forest vegetation in subtropical regions. Applied Soil Ecology 47: 210–216.

Wijanarko, A., B. H. Purwanto, D. Shiddieq and D. Indradewa. 2012. Effect of organic matter quality and soil fertility on N mineralization and N uptake by cassava in Ultisol. J. Perkebunan & Lahan Tropika, 2 (2):1-14. (in Indonesian).

Yang, Y., J. Guo, G. Chen, Y. Yin, R. Gao and C. Lin. 2009. Effects of forest conversion on soil labile organic carbon fractions and aggregate stability in subtropical China. Plant Soil 323:153–162.

Yonekura, Y., S. Ohta, Y; Kiyono, D. Aksa, K. Morisada, N. Tanaka and M. Kanzaki. 2010. Changes in soil carbon stock after deforestation and subsequent establishment of “Imperata” grassland in the Asian humid tropics. Plant Soil 329:495–507.

Yulnafatmawita, Adrinal and F. Anggriani. 2013. Fresh organic matter application to improve aggregate stability of Ultisols under wet tropical region. J Trop Soils, 18 ( 1): 33-44.

Zech, W., N. Senesi, G. Guggenberger, K. Kaiser, J. Lehmann, T.M. Miano, A. Miltner and G. Schroth. 1997. Factors controlling humification and mineralization of organic matter in the tropics. Geoderma 79:117-161.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jsolum.15.1.26-39.2018


  • There are currently no refbacks.